"I often had situations where women were locked up at home while the perpetrators went out, turned off the electricity, removed the fuses and carried the phone. They were left with nothing. I also had several situations where individuals they put flour in the doorway, left their footprint and walked away, and scattered (the flour) in a large area so that women could not leave the house. television. They had no telephone. They had nothing. " Reporting these facts to us is Elisabete Brazil, executive director for Gender Violence at UMAR (Women's Alternative and Response Union). The crudeness of simplicity that is reflected in the words of those who live and support victims of violence for more than two decades, deceives anyone who thinks that these situations belong to the past. On the contrary. Violence against women remains very active and sometimes closer than we could imagine. November 25 is the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women, and many women have felt the betrayal of pain in the privacy of their home and family. But fear and shame continue to have a strong and even decisive presence in the controversial moment in which Western society has never been so mobilized for gender violence. However, it seems to continue to exist as before. And is it possible that it is increasing? Let's try to answer the question. Also read two testimonials from women victims of violence Testimonials of domestic violence.
Law No. 7/2000
At the Victim Support Association (APAV), Daniel Cotrim, a psychologist, technical advisor to that association's directorate and shelter supervisor, explained to Máxima that it is important to distinguish violence against women from domestic violence, because although the latter is the best known is not the only one. There are various forms of violence against women for which there is not much work yet to be done, such as sexual harassment, workplace harassment, rape, harassment and persecution as gender crimes. In Portugal, since May 27, 2000, Law No. 7/2000 decrees that domestic violence is a public crime, that is, it is not dependent on the victim's complaint. the prosecutor promote the process. The APAV spokesman says complaints have increased "because people are more informed and we are no longer in the dark period 15 or 20 years ago." However, Daniel Cotrim adds that "violence against women is a form of normalized violence, trivialized and even socially excused because the very pillars of Western society are based on the idea that women have much less power than men." And concludes: "We have to work on the issues of stereotypes."
One of the proofs that the essence of violence against women lies in the foundations of our society is evident in the studies at the New University of Lisbon with which Elisabete Brazil began the conversation with us. "The first study (conducted by Professor Manuel Lourenço) appeared in 1995, before the first public policy framework on this subject (which would arrive in 1999). This study revealed that in Portugal one in three women was a victim of violence in sexual relations. of intimacy. " In 2007, in a second and broad study entitled Violence and Gender – National Survey on Violence against Women and Men (conducted by Professor Manuel Lisboa), violence against men was first contemplated and the conclusion was, he explains. Elisabete Brasil, that they "are more victims of generic violence than women". And he adds: "But their victimization space is the public space, the street, and their victimization is other men. The women's victimization space is the house, the intimacy." However, what worried the UMAR head most was the fact that the percentage of victims of women remains the same. Almost 20 years after the first public policies, it is necessary to understand why major changes still do not feel and women continue to suffer the same crimes.
From 16 to 93 years old
Every year UMAR commission a college study on dating violence, the latest revealing that a quarter of dating relationships are violent. There are many young women who subject themselves to acts of violence because they are willing to please their boyfriends, accept being controlled and even understand jealousy. Although information is abundant, it is not enough to change the way they think and even the violence they experience may not be perceived as such. On the other hand, the ubiquity of the mobile phone and the presence on social networks can be transformed from socialization media into objects of control. Adolescence has always been a phase of personal development, say, very special. The transition from childhood to adulthood poses challenges and doubts that we have all experienced because we know how complex social life management can be, especially when it is conditioned by fear. The information, the "dropper", which teenagers pass on to their parents often leaves out the courtship, and coexistence between peers always covers the terror of exclusion. Which usually leads to many taboos for few solutions.
APAV's Daniel Cotrim explains that "violence is always the product of someone who believes he is allegedly stronger than someone who believes he is allegedly weaker." And he adds: "All this will drink from our prejudices and culture. We are brought up in a thought that women have very little value and cannot have power because they cannot use it. In almost all children's stories, women who have power they are evil (stepmothers or witches), the good girls are the washerwomen. In the end, a slob appears from a man who kisses (without consent). " True, we all learn from what we see doing with family at home, with friends, or with entertainment programs, such as on television. If children's stories are filled with messages, advertising too is a good example of reflecting the customs of their own time. Elisabete Brasil, from UMAR, said that in the same week she received in the organization to which she belongs a 93-year-old female victim of domestic violence and a 16-year-old female victim of dating violence. However, it points out that it is near the age of 30 that most cases reside. This means that women talk and end abusive relationships earlier and earlier. Violence against women is complex and, in addition to taking various forms, is completely cross-cutting in society, not choosing age, skin color, religion or social background.
Violation – Crime and Punishment
According to the 2017 Annual Internal Security Report (RASI), domestic violence against spouses or the like decreased from 2016 to 2017, from 22,773 to 22,599 participations. It reveals that 80% of the victims are women and that 78% of them are over 25 years old. In 2017, of the 29,711 inquiries that were completed resulted in 4,465 charges, 20,470 filings and 4,776 for other reasons, ie less than one sixth of the inquiries resulted in a charge to the offender. However, they highlight the figures concerning violations and increasing, from 335 participations in 2016 to 408 in 2017, and violations being the only violent crime to increase. Máxima has devoted a great deal of research to this theme, and the article Violation – Crime and Punishment, published in March 1993, earned the author, then journalist Helena Matos, and our magazine the highest national journalism award. It seems that over 25 years later, this violent form of aggression, which is universal and whose main victims are women, remains a threat. In June 2018, a ruling by the Porto Court of Appeal declared "mutual seduction" a violation three years ago by two bar staff to an unconscious young woman. In April last year, a sentence in Spain also caused outrage. A group of five men (aged 27-29), known as La Manada, raped a girl of 18 and the court found that because she had not resisted, there was no sexual assault but abuse. The civilized society is aware of these cases, revolts and manifests itself, social networks catch fire and the cases are widely discussed. But then what?
Time and justice
Combating domestic violence is a common theme on political agendas, but all other forms of gender-based violence still need to be given similar relevance. The Istanbul Convention was adopted in the Turkish capital by the Council of Europe for the Prevention and Combating of Violence against Women and Domestic Violence on 11 May 2011. Portugal approved the convention at the Assembly of the Republic in December 2012 and was the first Member State of the European Union to ratify it. The purpose of this convention is to protect women from all types of violence, to prevent and prosecute and to eliminate all forms of violence and discrimination against women, as well as international cooperation.
But despite the convention's recommendations, the pace of work varies across countries. According to experts, Portuguese law is good in the context of Europe, but the path of justice is long and has many stops. When there is an alert is the victim …
. (tagsToTranslate) Violence (t) APAV (t) UMAR (t) Women (t) Human Rights (t) Feminism